The Linguist

The Linguist 58,4 - Aug/Sept 2019

The Linguist is a languages magazine for professional linguists, translators, interpreters, language professionals, language teachers, trainers, students and academics with articles on translation, interpreting, business, government, technology

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@Linguist_CIOL AUGUST/SEPTEMBER The Linguist 25 REVIEWS Language and Social Justice in Practice Netta Avineri et al Routledge 2019, 247pp; ISBN 978-1-138-06945-9 Paperback £30 Language is an increasingly contentious topic, as globalisation and the growth of social media give rise to pressure groups and individuals who are ready to attack views contrary to their own. Language and Social Justice in Practice reviews the way in which language has become a central concern, covering everything from outmoded forms of speech to updated educational practice, with the bulk of the case studies coming from the US. It is encouraging to see that the state of Oregon has implemented a successful programme of dual language education. Introduced in 2013, this has promoted social justice and improved social integration to such an extent that states including California have backtracked on their monolingual education regulations following parental demand. Other perceived benefits include greater competence in the heritage culture, improved performance across the curriculum, increased social development in bilingual children and a positive impact on wider social integration. The case of Oregon is salutary as it shows the extent to which social attitudes, government policy and popular perceptions can change. Oregon joined the Union in 1859 as a whites-only state after a 15-year period in which black people were obliged to leave the territory on pain of severe flogging. The treatment of other minority groups is also covered, taking as an example the cultural appropriation of the country's Amerindian heritage. The names, mascots and symbols of teams such as the Washington Redskins are increasingly seen as hurtful caricatures that have no place in today's world. There are examples, too, from across Latin America, including student poster campaigns in Argentinian universities and road signs in an indigenous language of Brazil. In Guatemala, the health services face challenges following the 2003 Language Law, which means care has to be provided in 23 indigenous languages. Language and Social Justice in Practice is comprehensive in scope, with 24 chapters in five parts. It does not make for light reading (and some of the areas it covers are quite disturbing), so it might be an uphill challenge for the general reader. However, it would be very useful as a set text on courses in linguistics and contemporary anthropology, as it considers complex issues in great detail, backed up by extensive footnotes for further reading. Professor Tim Connell FCIL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Across 7 Fur of the coypu, from the Spanish for 'otter'. (6) 8 Somewhere to retreat to in India. (6) 9 A man-eater, probably invented by Perrault. (4) 10 Mikhail Gorbachev's openness. (8) 11 Campaign to liberate Kuwait 1990-91. (4,3) 13 One translation of Greek 'morphos' as in metamorphosis. (5) 15 A single element of speech in phonetics. (5) 17 Language group covering China and Tibet. (7) 20 Staple dish of North Africa. (8) 21 A simple tense. (4) 22 West African language which has 48 million speakers and belongs to the Kwa group. (6) 23 Bokmål is the written language for the majority (90%) of this country's population. (6) Down 1 Chinese martial art, in which the first element means 'work' or 'effort'. (4,2) 2 Algonquian language which features a 4th person. (4) 3 Chinese puzzle made of seven interlocking pieces. (7) 4 Portuguese is still spoken by some in this region of China. (5) 5 Literally 'upon the sea', the most populous city in China. (8) 6 Malaysian sauce. (6) 12 'Wind water' in Chinese, it influences building design. (4,4) 14 Medicinal herb from the Far East, from Hokkien Chinese. (7) 16 A bringer of bad luck. (6) 18 A stage of an insect's development. (6) 19 Describes languages such as Cantonese and Mandarin. (5) 21 Country where Quechua and Aymara have official status locally. (4) Crossword no.23 Solution, page 28

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